PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

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PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Konstantin Malanchev
Hello,

I'm running PostgreSQL 11.4 on Linux 4.12.14 and I see the following issue while executing single one query:
ERROR:  could not resize shared
memory segment "/PostgreSQL.1596105766" to 536870912 bytes: No space left on device

In my postgresql.conf I set sharred_buffers=256MB, I see that it is applied:
SHOW shared_buffers;
 shared_buffers
----------------
 256MB

At the same time during the query execution, I see a lot of files in /dev/shm with the total size more than 256MB

ls -lh /dev/shm
total 1.4G
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 193K Jul  8 08:39 PostgreSQL.1026343462
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 4.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1066463809
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 8.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1154587693
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 4.0M Jul  8 08:47 PostgreSQL.1292794952
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 128M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.130026740
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 8.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1377271816
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  16M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1453162423
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 128M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1496397787
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 8.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1541518903
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  64M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1554139410
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 2.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1563273542
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 256M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1604524364
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  64M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1624127960
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 4.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1674892421
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 128M Jul  8 10:32 PostgreSQL.179085785
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  32M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1921401343
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  32M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.1931571650
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 2.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.2002232858
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 2.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.2057901523
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 2.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.2110310896
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  65M Jul  8 08:39 PostgreSQL.2136390898
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 182K Jul  8 08:39 PostgreSQL.261370809
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  16M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.397419407
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 4.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.431734656
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 128M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.478359814
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 8.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.489042863
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  64M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.590987495
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 3.4M Jul  8 08:39 PostgreSQL.62466476
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  16M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.629400316
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 6.8K Jul  8 08:39 PostgreSQL.741718396
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  16M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.770970033
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 1.0M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.776045115
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  64M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.795742467
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  32M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.835134775
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  32M Jul  8 10:23 PostgreSQL.953710812

How can I configure limit for total shared memory size?


Best regards,
Konstantin

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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Jean Louis
* Konstantin Malanchev <[hidden email]> [2019-07-09 11:51]:

> Hello,
>
> I'm running PostgreSQL 11.4 on Linux 4.12.14 and I see the following issue while executing single one query:
> ERROR:  could not resize shared
> memory segment "/PostgreSQL.1596105766" to 536870912 bytes: No space left on device
>
> In my postgresql.conf I set sharred_buffers=256MB, I see that it is applied:
> SHOW shared_buffers;
>  shared_buffers
> ----------------
>  256MB
>
> At the same time during the query execution, I see a lot of files in /dev/shm with the total size more than 256MB
>
> ls -lh /dev/shm
>
> How can I configure limit for total shared memory size?

The limit is mostly set by the memory, as /dev/shm
is like virtual memory or RAM disk.

Increase the RAM.

Jean


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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Konstantin Malanchev
Hello Jean,

I have 8 GB RAM and /dev/shm size is 4GB, and there is no significant memory usage by other system processes. I surprised that Postgres uses more space in /dev/shm than sharred_buffers parameter allows, probably I don't understand what this parameter means.

I have no opportunity to enlarge total RAM and probably this query requires too much RAM to execute. Should Postgres just use HDD as temporary storage in this case?


Konstantin

On 9 Jul 2019, at 12:53, Jean Louis <[hidden email]> wrote:

* Konstantin Malanchev <[hidden email]> [2019-07-09 11:51]:
Hello,

I'm running PostgreSQL 11.4 on Linux 4.12.14 and I see the following issue while executing single one query:
ERROR:  could not resize shared
memory segment "/PostgreSQL.1596105766" to 536870912 bytes: No space left on device

In my postgresql.conf I set sharred_buffers=256MB, I see that it is applied:
SHOW shared_buffers;
shared_buffers
----------------
256MB

At the same time during the query execution, I see a lot of files in /dev/shm with the total size more than 256MB

ls -lh /dev/shm

How can I configure limit for total shared memory size?

The limit is mostly set by the memory, as /dev/shm
is like virtual memory or RAM disk.

Increase the RAM.

Jean

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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Jean Louis
* Konstantin Malanchev <[hidden email]> [2019-07-09 12:10]:
> Hello Jean,
>
> I have 8 GB RAM and /dev/shm size is 4GB, and there is no significant memory usage by other system processes. I surprised that Postgres uses more space in /dev/shm than sharred_buffers parameter allows, probably I don't understand what this parameter means.
>
> I have no opportunity to enlarge total RAM and probably this query requires too much RAM to execute. Should Postgres just use HDD as temporary storage in this case?

That I cannot know. I know that /dev/shm could
grow as much as available free RAM.

Jean


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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Thomas Munro-5
On Tue, Jul 9, 2019 at 10:15 PM Jean Louis <[hidden email]> wrote:
> * Konstantin Malanchev <[hidden email]> [2019-07-09 12:10]:
> > I have 8 GB RAM and /dev/shm size is 4GB, and there is no significant memory usage by other system processes. I surprised that Postgres uses more space in /dev/shm than sharred_buffers parameter allows, probably I don't understand what this parameter means.
> >
> > I have no opportunity to enlarge total RAM and probably this query requires too much RAM to execute. Should Postgres just use HDD as temporary storage in this case?
>
> That I cannot know. I know that /dev/shm could
> grow as much as available free RAM.

Hi,

PostgreSQL creates segments in /dev/shm for parallel queries (via
shm_open()), not for shared buffers.  The amount used is controlled by
work_mem.  Queries can use up to work_mem for each node you see in the
EXPLAIN plan, and for each process, so it can be quite a lot if you
have lots of parallel worker processes and/or lots of
tables/partitions being sorted or hashed in your query.

--
Thomas Munro
https://enterprisedb.com


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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Konstantin Malanchev
Hello Thomas,

Thank you for explanation. work_mem = 512MB and max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 2 and I run only one Postgres instance and only one query. EXPLAIN shows "Workers Planned: 2" for this query. Why it can use more than 1GB of /dev/shm?


Konstantin

> On 9 Jul 2019, at 13:51, Thomas Munro <[hidden email]> wrote:
>
> On Tue, Jul 9, 2019 at 10:15 PM Jean Louis <[hidden email]> wrote:
>> * Konstantin Malanchev <[hidden email]> [2019-07-09 12:10]:
>>> I have 8 GB RAM and /dev/shm size is 4GB, and there is no significant memory usage by other system processes. I surprised that Postgres uses more space in /dev/shm than sharred_buffers parameter allows, probably I don't understand what this parameter means.
>>>
>>> I have no opportunity to enlarge total RAM and probably this query requires too much RAM to execute. Should Postgres just use HDD as temporary storage in this case?
>>
>> That I cannot know. I know that /dev/shm could
>> grow as much as available free RAM.
>
> Hi,
>
> PostgreSQL creates segments in /dev/shm for parallel queries (via
> shm_open()), not for shared buffers.  The amount used is controlled by
> work_mem.  Queries can use up to work_mem for each node you see in the
> EXPLAIN plan, and for each process, so it can be quite a lot if you
> have lots of parallel worker processes and/or lots of
> tables/partitions being sorted or hashed in your query.
>
> --
> Thomas Munro
> https://enterprisedb.com



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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Thomas Munro-5
On Tue, Jul 9, 2019 at 11:11 PM Konstantin Malanchev <[hidden email]> wrote:
> Thank you for explanation. work_mem = 512MB and max_parallel_workers_per_gather = 2 and I run only one Postgres instance and only one query. EXPLAIN shows "Workers Planned: 2" for this query. Why it can use more than 1GB of /dev/shm?

For example, if you have one Parallel Hash Join in your plan, it could
allocate up to 512MB * 3 of shared memory (3 = leader process + 2
workers).  It sounds like you'll need to set work_mem smaller.  If you
run EXPLAIN ANALYZE you'll see how much memory is used by individual
operations.  Usually it's regular private anonymous memory, but for
Parallel Hash it's /dev/shm memory.

--
Thomas Munro
https://enterprisedb.com


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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Konstantin Malanchev
Thank you!

> For example, if you have one Parallel Hash Join in your plan, it could
> allocate up to 512MB * 3 of shared memory (3 = leader process + 2
> workers).

I'm executing the query with smaller work_mem, it will take some time. But I still confused why it used all /dev/shm (4GB) and fails with "no space left" error while work_mem = 512MB.

> If you
> run EXPLAIN ANALYZE you'll see how much memory is used by individual
> operations.

I cannot run EXPLAIN ANALYSE, because the query fails. This is explanation for the query:

EXPLAIN
        CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW IF NOT EXISTS new_mat_view
        AS
        SELECT * FROM my_view
        INNER JOIN another_mat_view USING (oid)
        ORDER BY oid, field_name;

 Gather Merge  (cost=5696039356565.87..10040767101103.24 rows=37237923518438 width=31)
   Workers Planned: 2
   ->  Sort  (cost=5696039355565.85..5742586759963.90 rows=18618961759219 width=31)
         Sort Key: my_table.oid, my_table.field_name
         ->  Parallel Hash Join  (cost=11030236131.39..255829470118.27 rows=18618961759219 width=31)
               Hash Cond: (another_mat_view.oid = my_table.oid)
               ->  Parallel Seq Scan on another_mat_view  (cost=0.00..652514.56 rows=31645556 width=8)
               ->  Parallel Hash  (cost=636676233.38..636676233.38 rows=20353804801 width=31)
                     ->  Parallel Seq Scan on my_table  (cost=0.00..636676233.38 rows=20353804801 width=31)
                           Filter: (flag = '0000000000000000'::bit(16))

Konstantin

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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Thomas Munro-5
On Wed, Jul 10, 2019 at 12:27 AM Konstantin Malanchev <[hidden email]> wrote:
> I'm executing the query with smaller work_mem, it will take some time. But I still confused why it used all /dev/shm (4GB) and fails with "no space left" error while work_mem = 512MB.

I think it could fail that way for two reasons: /dev/shm size limit
(mount option, which I think you are saying you have set to 4GB?), or
your system ran out of RAM +swap.  The directly listing in your first
message only shows 1.4GB, not 4GB, so perhaps it's the second problem.

>          ->  Parallel Hash Join  (cost=11030236131.39..255829470118.27 rows=18618961759219 width=31)
>                Hash Cond: (another_mat_view.oid = my_table.oid)
>                ->  Parallel Seq Scan on another_mat_view  (cost=0.00..652514.56 rows=31645556 width=8)
>                ->  Parallel Hash  (cost=636676233.38..636676233.38 rows=20353804801 width=31)
>                      ->  Parallel Seq Scan on my_table  (cost=0.00..636676233.38 rows=20353804801 width=31)
>                            Filter: (flag = '0000000000000000'::bit(16))

It's strange that it's hashing the ~20B row table instead of the ~30M row table.

--
Thomas Munro
https://enterprisedb.com


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Re: PGSQL 11.4: shared_buffers and /dev/shm size

Konstantin Malanchev
> I think it could fail that way for two reasons: /dev/shm size limit
> (mount option, which I think you are saying you have set to 4GB?), or
> your system ran out of RAM +swap.

df /dev/shm
Filesystem     1K-blocks   Used Available Use% Mounted on
shm              4194304 351176   3843128   9% /dev/shm

mount | grep /dev/shm
shm on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=4194304k)

I have no swap and 8GB of RAM, when there is no active queries only ~800MB of RAM is used. So I don't believe that it is out of memory problem.


>  The directly listing in your first
> message only shows 1.4GB, not 4GB, so perhaps it's the second problem.

I cannot catch the right moment with ls, but I've run bash for-loop that that logs "df /dev/shm" every minute and the last entry before fail shows that 89% of /dev/shm is used:

Filesystem     1K-blocks    Used Available Use% Mounted on
shm              4194304 3732368    461936  89% /dev/shm

There is no other processes that use /dev/shm.


> It's strange that it's hashing the ~20B row table instead of the ~30M row table.

It could be a question for another mail thread =)


Konstantin