== PostgreSQL Weekly News - September 6, 2020 ==

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== PostgreSQL Weekly News - September 6, 2020 ==

David Fetter
== PostgreSQL Weekly News - September  6, 2020 ==

Person of the week: https://postgresql.life/post/marco_slot/

== PostgreSQL Product News ==

pgBackRest 2.29, a backup and restore system for PostgreSQL, released.
https://pgbackrest.org/release.html#2.29

pgFormatter 4.4, a formatter/beautifier for SQL code, released.
http://sqlformat.darold.net/

pgbitmap 0.91, a space-optimised, non-sparse, bitmap type, released.
https://pgxn.org/dist/pgbitmap/

== PostgreSQL Jobs for September ==

http://archives.postgresql.org/pgsql-jobs/2020-09/

== PostgreSQL Local ==

pgDay Israel 2020 will take place on September 10, 2020 in Tel Aviv.
http://pgday.org.il/

== PostgreSQL in the News ==

Planet PostgreSQL: http://planet.postgresql.org/

PostgreSQL Weekly News is brought to you this week by David Fetter

Submit news and announcements by Sunday at 3:00pm PST8PDT to [hidden email].

== Applied Patches ==

Tom Lane pushed:

- Mark factorial operator, and postfix operators in general, as deprecated. Per
  discussion, we're planning to remove parser support for postfix operators in
  order to simplify the grammar.  So it behooves us to put out a deprecation
  notice at least one release before that.  There is only one built-in postfix
  operator, ! for factorial. Label it deprecated in the docs and in
  pg_description, and adjust some examples that formerly relied on it.  (The
  sister prefix operator !! is also deprecated.  We don't really have to remove
  that one, but since we're suggesting that people use factorial() instead, it
  seems better to remove both operators.)  Also state in the CREATE OPERATOR ref
  page that postfix operators in general are going away.  Although this changes
  the initial contents of pg_description, I did not force a catversion bump; it
  doesn't seem essential.  In v13, also back-patch 4c5cf5431, so that there's
  someplace for the <link>s to point to.  Mark Dilger and John Naylor, with some
  adjustments by me  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/BE2DF53D-251A-4E26-972F-930E523580E9@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/6ca547cf75ef6e922476c51a3fb5e253eef5f1b6

- Teach libpq to handle arbitrary-length lines in .pgpass files. Historically
  there's been a hard-wired assumption here that no line of a .pgpass file could
  be as long as NAMEDATALEN*5 bytes.  That's a bit shaky to start off with,
  because (a) there's no reason to suppose that host names fit in NAMEDATALEN,
  and (b) this figure fails to allow for backslash escape characters.  However,
  it fails completely if someone wants to use a very long password, and we're
  now hearing reports of people wanting to use "security tokens" that can run up
  to several hundred bytes.  Another angle is that the file is specified to
  allow comment lines, but there's no reason to assume that long comment lines
  aren't possible.  Rather than guessing at what might be a more suitable limit,
  let's replace the fixed-size buffer with an expansible PQExpBuffer.  That adds
  one malloc/free cycle to the typical use-case, but that's surely pretty cheap
  relative to the I/O this code has to do.  Also, add TAP test cases to exercise
  this code, because there was no test coverage before.  This reverts most of
  commit 2eb3bc588, as there's no longer a need for a warning message about
  overlength .pgpass lines.  (I kept the explicit check for comment lines,
  though.)  In HEAD and v13, this also fixes an oversight in 74a308cf5: there's
  not much point in explicit_bzero'ing the line buffer if we only do so in two
  of the three exit paths.  Back-patch to all supported branches, except that
  the test case only goes back to v10 where src/test/authentication/ was added.
  Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/4187382.1598909041@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/b55b4dad99e99d5306744a4e8ef8021fa3a922e4

- Set cutoff xmin more aggressively when vacuuming a temporary table. Since
  other sessions aren't allowed to look into a temporary table of our own
  session, we do not need to worry about the global xmin horizon when setting
  the vacuum XID cutoff.  Indeed, if we're not inside a transaction block, we
  may set oldestXmin to be the next XID, because there cannot be any in-doubt
  tuples in a temp table, nor any tuples that are dead but still visible to some
  snapshot of our transaction.  (VACUUM, of course, is never inside a
  transaction block; but we need to test that because CLUSTER shares the same
  code.)  This approach allows us to always clean out a temp table completely
  during VACUUM, independently of concurrent activity.  Aside from being useful
  in its own right, that simplifies building reproducible test cases.
  Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/3490536.1598629609@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/a7212be8b9e0885ee769e8c55f99ef742cda487b

- Improve test coverage of ginvacuum.c. Add a test case that exercises vacuum's
  deletion of empty GIN posting pages.  Since this is a temp table, it should
  now work reliably to delete a bunch of rows and immediately VACUUM. Before the
  preceding commit, this would not have had the desired effect, at least not in
  parallel regression tests.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/3490536.1598629609@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/4c51a2d1e4b750bc11b8de9a85b079a14f798741

- Add string_to_table() function. This splits a string at occurrences of a
  delimiter.  It is exactly like string_to_array() except for producing a set of
  values instead of an array of values.  Thus, the relationship of these two
  functions is the same as between regexp_split_to_table() and
  regexp_split_to_array().  Although the same results could be had from
  unnest(string_to_array()), this is somewhat faster than that, and anyway it
  seems reasonable to have it for symmetry with the regexp functions.  Pavel
  Stehule, reviewed by Peter Smith  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAFj8pRD8HOpjq2TqeTBhSo_QkzjLOhXzGCpKJ4nCs7Y9SQkuPw@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/66f163068030b5c5fe792a0daee27822dac43791

- Doc: mention packager-supplied tools for server start/stop, initdb, etc. The
  majority of our audience is probably using a pre-packaged Postgres build
  rather than raw sources.  For them, much of runtime.sgml is not too relevant,
  and they should be reading the packager's docs instead. Add some notes
  pointing that way in appropriate places.  Text by me; thanks to Daniel
  Gustafsson for review and discussion, and to Laurenz Albe for an earlier
  version.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/159430831443.16535.11360317280100947016@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/d2511d71328cb30b0d6b3f43af4809df83c4f0cc

- Allow records to span multiple lines in pg_hba.conf and pg_ident.conf. A
  backslash at the end of a line now causes the next line to be appended to the
  current one (effectively, the backslash and newline are discarded). This
  allows long HBA entries to be created without legibility problems.  While
  we're here, get rid of the former hard-wired length limit on pg_hba.conf
  lines, by using an expansible StringInfo buffer instead of a fixed-size local
  variable.  Since the same code is used to read the ident map file, these
  changes apply there as well.  Fabien Coelho, reviewed by Justin Pryzby and
  David Zhang  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/alpine.DEB.2.21.2003251906140.15243@pseudo
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/8f8154a503c71a18ad72c64f4aefb9d847c45b86

- Avoid lockup of a parallel worker when reporting a long error message. Because
  sigsetjmp() will restore the initial state with signals blocked, the code path
  in bgworker.c for reporting an error and exiting would execute that way.
  Usually this is fairly harmless; but if a parallel worker had an error message
  exceeding the shared-memory communication buffer size (16K) it would lock up,
  because it would wait for a resume-sending signal from its parallel leader
  which it would never detect.  To fix, just unblock signals at the appropriate
  point.  This can be shown to fail back to 9.6.  The lack of parallel query
  infrastructure makes it difficult to provide a simple test case for 9.5; but
  I'm pretty sure the issue exists in some form there as well, so apply the code
  change there too.  Vignesh C, reviewed by Bharath Rupireddy, Robert Haas, and
  myself  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CALDaNm1d1hHPZUg3xU4XjtWBOLCrA+-2cJcLpw-cePZ=GgDVfA@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/be4b0c0077e6a1f7be0965f8d93696e0e0eadb52

- Remove arbitrary restrictions on password length. This patch started out with
  the goal of harmonizing various arbitrary limits on password length, but after
  awhile a better idea emerged: let's just get rid of those fixed limits.
  recv_password_packet() has an arbitrary limit on the packet size, which we
  don't really need, so just drop it.  (Note that this doesn't really affect
  anything for MD5 or SCRAM password verification, since those will hash the
  user's password to something shorter anyway. It does matter for auth methods
  that require a cleartext password.)  Likewise remove the arbitrary error
  condition in pg_saslprep().  The remaining limits are mostly in client-side
  code that prompts for passwords.  To improve those, refactor simple_prompt()
  so that it allocates its own result buffer that can be made as big as
  necessary.  Actually, it proves best to make a separate routine pg_get_line()
  that has essentially the semantics of fgets(), except that it allocates a
  suitable result buffer and hence will never return a truncated line.
  (pg_get_line has a lot of potential applications to replace randomly-sized
  fgets buffers elsewhere, but I'll leave that for another patch.)  I built
  pg_get_line() atop stringinfo.c, which requires moving that code to
  src/common/; but that seems fine since it was a poor fit for src/port/ anyway.
  This patch is mostly mine, but it owes a good deal to Nathan Bossart who
  pressed for a solution to the password length problem and created a
  predecessor patch.  Also thanks to Peter Eisentraut and Stephen Frost for
  ideas and discussion.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/09512C4F-8CB9-4021-B455-EF4C4F0D55A0@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/67a472d71c98c3d2fa322a1b4013080b20720b98

- Fix rare deadlock failure in create_am regression test. The "DROP ACCESS
  METHOD gist2" test will require locking the index to be dropped and then its
  table; while most ordinary operations lock a table first then its index.
  While no concurrent test scripts should be touching fast_emp4000, autovacuum
  might chance to be processing that table when the DROP runs, resulting in a
  deadlock failure.  This is pretty rare but we see it in the buildfarm from
  time to time.  To fix, acquire a lock on fast_emp4000 before issuing the DROP.
  Since the point of the exercise is mostly to prevent buildfarm failures,
  back-patch to 9.6 where this test was introduced.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/839004.1599185607@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/d54f99e41541de848a6ca53b3ec060f461e9ab71

- Remove some more useless assignments. Found with clang's scan-build tool.  It
  also whines about a lot of other dead stores that we should *not* change IMO,
  either as a matter of style or future-proofing.  But these places seem like
  clear oversights.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAEudQAo1+AcGppxDSg8k+zF4+Kv+eJyqzEDdbpDg58-=MQcerQ@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/38a2d703298c9a891dc9c24c0c087f417f555c70

- Fix over-eager ping'ing in logical replication receiver. Commit 3f60f690f only
  partially fixed the broken-status-tracking issue in LogicalRepApplyLoop: we
  need ping_sent to have the same lifetime as last_recv_timestamp.  The effects
  are much less serious than what that commit fixed, though.  AFAICS this would
  just lead to extra ping requests being sent, once per second until the sender
  responds.  Still, it's a bug, so backpatch to v10 as before.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/959627.1599248476@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/c8746f999ea2feba22832b485fba37b5301b54a3

- Remove still more useless assignments. Fix some more things scan-build pointed
  to as dead stores.  In some of these cases, rearranging the code a little
  leads to more readable code IMO.  It's all cosmetic, though.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAEudQAo1+AcGppxDSg8k+zF4+Kv+eJyqzEDdbpDg58-=MQcerQ@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/9a851039aac6fc7b78a80e60699e7bd8924b6f12

- Make new authentication test case more robust. I happened to notice that the
  new test case I added in b55b4dad9 falls over if one runs "make check"
  repeatedly; though not in branches after v10.  That's because it was assuming
  that tmp_check/pgpass wouldn't exist already.  However, it's only been since
  v11 that the Makefiles forcibly remove all of tmp_check/ before starting a TAP
  run. This fix to unlink the file is therefore strictly necessary only in v10
  ... but it seems wisest to do it across the board, rather than let the test
  rely on external logic to get the conditions right.
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/4d41823c5267184fb021ac456caf95ef734cc8b0

- Yet more elimination of dead stores and useless initializations. I'm not sure
  what tool Ranier was using, but the ones I contributed were found by using a
  newer version of scan-build than I tried before.  Ranier Vilela and Tom Lane
  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAEudQAo1+AcGppxDSg8k+zF4+Kv+eJyqzEDdbpDg58-=MQcerQ@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/a5cc4dab6d1d694f113912a2aca7012a95262f0b

- Improve some ancient, crufty code in bootstrap + initdb. At some point back in
  the last century, somebody felt that reading all of pg_type twice was cheaper,
  or at least easier, than using repalloc() to resize the Typ[] array
  dynamically.  That seems like an entirely wacko proposition, so rewrite the
  code to do it the other way.  (To add insult to injury, there were two
  not-quite-identical copies of said code.)  initdb.c's readfile() function had
  the same disease of preferring to do double the I/O to avoid resizing its
  output array.  Here, we can make things easier by using the just-invented
  pg_get_line() function to handle reading individual lines without a
  predetermined notion of how long they are.  On my machine, it's difficult to
  detect any net change in the overall runtime of initdb from these changes; but
  they should help on slower buildfarm machines (especially since a buildfarm
  cycle involves a lot of initdb's these days).  My attention was drawn to these
  places by scan-build complaints, but on inspection they needed a lot more work
  than just suppressing dead stores :-(
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/e0f05cd5ba76a75e2ce3b85ba050e48e857dca00

- Remove useless lstat() call in pg_rewind. This is duplicative of an lstat that
  was just done by the calling function (traverse_datadir), besides which we
  weren't really doing anything with the results.  There's not much point in
  checking to see if someone removed the file since the previous lstat, since
  the FILE_ACTION_REMOVE code would have to deal with missing-file cases anyway.
  Moreover, the "exists = false" assignment was a dead store; nothing was done
  with that value later.  A syscall saved is a syscall earned, so back-patch to
  9.5 where this code was introduced.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/1221796.1599329320@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/666e9a90f09a1ab89959774273597764e6e0f9ad

- Fix misleading error message about inconsistent moving-aggregate types. We
  reported the wrong types when complaining that an aggregate's moving-aggregate
  implementation is inconsistent with its regular implementation.  This was
  wrong since the feature was introduced, so back-patch to all supported
  branches.  Jeff Janes  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAMkU=1x808LH=LPhZp9mNSP0Xd1xDqEd+XeGcvEe48dfE6xV=A@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/19ad7e1d7b8b54ea3aa405e60057ab4baefcedbf

Magnus Hagander pushed:

- Fix docs bug stating file_fdw requires absolute paths. It has always (since
  the first commit) worked with relative paths, so use the same wording as other
  parts of the documentation.  Author: Bruce Momjian Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CABUevExx-hm=cit+A9LeKBH39srvk8Y2tEZeEAj5mP8YfzNKUg@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/3a788db60108fed2e51f62a79a5f425401300338

Bruce Momjian pushed:

- doc:  clarify the useful features of procedures. This was not clearly
  documented when procedures were added in PG 11.  Reported-by: Robin Abbi
  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAGmg_NX327KKVuJmbWZD=pGutYFxzZjX1rU+3ji8UuX=8ONn9Q@...
  Backpatch-through: 11
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/243a3b92a67519d4da1712b4fbad194bded3afb5

- docs:  improve 'capitals' inheritance example. Adds constraints and improves
  wording.  Reported-by: [hidden email]  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/159586122762.680.1361378513036616007@...
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/47c427d006267d752fee4655543ec99dabe9e61d

- doc:  improve description of subscripting of arrays. It wasn't clear the
  non-integers are cast to integers for subscripting, rather than throwing an
  error.  Reported-by: [hidden email]  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/159538675800.624.7728794628229799531@...
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/06eba0fd10b1c19d578b90f6ab792834fe9a7418

- C comment:  remove mention of use of t_hoff WAL structure member. Reported-by:
  Antonin Houska  Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/21643.1595353537@antos
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/1e0512ff23e600e9bc19e7f1a1c5ce0597c7bd47

- docs:  replace "stable storage" with "durable" in descriptions. For PG,
  "durable storage" has a clear meaning, while "stable storage" does not, so use
  the former.  Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/20200817165222.GA31806@...
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/70e791f47e976a810254d52d38fbc33acdc8705f

- docs:  clarify intermediate certificate creation instructions. Specifically,
  explain the v3_ca openssl specification.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/20200824175653.GA32411@...  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/b1ae70b3b4fd54220a0901eaf3dd4c5ca0827108

- doc: cross-link file-fdw and CSV config log sections. There is an file-fdw
  example that reads the server config file, so cross link them.  Reported-by:
  Oleg Samoilov  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/159800192078.2886.10431506404995508950@...
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/de2d1920ddf54ec8dbcc87821ade5346f0cf8926

- docs:  in mapping SQL to C data types, timestamp isn't a pointer. It is an
  int64.  Reported-by: [hidden email]  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/159845038271.24995.15682121015698255155@...
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/9524fa1aa557b19c9f049b3d79dc93e53cb9d57b

- pg_upgrade doc:  mention saving postgresql.conf.auto files. Also mention files
  included by postgresql.conf.  Reported-by: Álvaro Herrera  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/08AD4526-75AB-457B-B2DD-099663F28040@...
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/50ed605b3e311f26497cea979887a8deed3eabf6

- doc: add commas after 'i.e.' and 'e.g.'. This follows the American format,
  https://jakubmarian.com/comma-after-i-e-and-e-g/. There is no intention of
  requiring this format for future text, but making existing text consistent
  every few years makes sense.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/20200825183619.GA22369@...  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/953c64e0f67d44b1db97a3d33b329ccd4691f4c6

- doc:  document how the backup manifest is transferred. Reported-by: Bernd
  Helmle  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/31acf8b0f1f701d53245e0cae38abdf5c3a0d559.camel@...
  Backpatch-through: 13
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/ab3c6d41552411ea2fe4904ec8294951c52c113d

- doc:  clarify that max_wal_size is "during" checkpoints. Previous wording was
  "between".  Reported-by: Pavel Luzanov  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/26906a54-d7cb-2f8e-eed7-e31660024694@...
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/db864c3c36035e4620afd114c783af7d777d78b0

- remove redundant initializations. Reported-by: Ranier Vilela  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAEudQAo1+AcGppxDSg8k+zF4+Kv+eJyqzEDdbpDg58-=MQcerQ@...
  Author: Ranier Vilela  Backpatch-through: master
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/e36e936e0ee664e07588732d1a8d105c5ec8e57d

- C comment:  correct use of 64-"byte" cache line size. Reported-by: Kelly Min
  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAPSbxatOiQO90LYpSC3+svAU9-sHgDfEP4oFhcEUt_X=DqFA9g@...
  Backpatch-through: 9.5
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/3b5af0e95ad5a3d9b478826336a11ad1d201c378

Álvaro Herrera pushed:

- doc: Update partitioning limitation on BEFORE triggers. Reported-by: Erwin
  Brandstetter <[hidden email]> Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAGHENJ6Le7S3qJJx2TvWvTwRNS3N=BtoNeb7AF2rZvfNBMeQcg@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/0ebe82a9413fcd5621266ec57d9f4bc50f0457d8

- Raise error on concurrent drop of partitioned index. We were already raising
  an error for DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY on a partitioned table, albeit a
  different and confusing one:   ERROR:  DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY must be first
  action in transaction  Change that to throw a more comprehensible error:
  ERROR:  cannot drop partitioned index \"%s\" concurrently  Michael Paquier
  authored the test case for indexes on temporary partitioned tables.  Backpatch
  to 11, where indexes on partitioned tables were added.  Reported-by: Jan
  Mussler <[hidden email]> Reviewed-by: Michael Paquier
  <[hidden email]> Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/16594-d2956ca909585067@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/afc7e0ad556a4f720c466cb4815fc77d310fc50a

- Fix typo in comment. Introduced by 8b08f7d4820f; backpatch to 11.  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/20200812214918.GA30353@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/05c16b827f3ae66ec718e9af49e4d96906fa2ffb

- Report expected contrecord length on mismatch. When reading a WAL record fails
  to find continuation record(s) of the proper length, report what it expects,
  for clarity.  Reviewed-by: Tom Lane <[hidden email]> Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/20200903212152.GA15319@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/f43e295f68c3e04ef891627f62016a5b3d8ed4a8

Amit Kapila pushed:

- Fix the SharedFileSetUnregister API. Commit 808e13b282 introduced a few APIs
  to extend the existing Buffile interface. In SharedFileSetDeleteOnProcExit, it
  tries to delete the list element while traversing the list with 'foreach'
  construct which makes the behavior of list traversal unpredictable.  Author:
  Amit Kapila Reviewed-by: Dilip Kumar Tested-by: Dilip Kumar and Neha Sharma
  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAA4eK1JhLatVcQ2OvwA_3s0ih6Hx9+kZbq107cXVsSWWukH7vA@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/4ab77697f67aa5b90b032b9175b46901859da6d7

- Add support for streaming to built-in logical replication. To add support for
  streaming of in-progress transactions into the built-in logical replication,
  we need to do three things:  * Extend the logical replication protocol, so
  identify in-progress transactions, and allow adding additional bits of
  information (e.g. XID of subtransactions).  * Modify the output plugin
  (pgoutput) to implement the new stream API callbacks, by leveraging the
  extended replication protocol.  * Modify the replication apply worker, to
  properly handle streamed in-progress transaction by spilling the data to disk
  and then replaying them on commit.  We however must explicitly disable
  streaming replication during replication slot creation, even if the plugin
  supports it. We don't need to replicate the changes accumulated during this
  phase, and moreover we don't have a replication connection open so we don't
  have where to send the data anyway.  Author: Tomas Vondra, Dilip Kumar and
  Amit Kapila Reviewed-by: Amit Kapila, Kuntal Ghosh and Ajin Cherian Tested-by:
  Neha Sharma, Mahendra Singh Thalor and Ajin Cherian Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/688b0b7f-2f6c-d827-c27b-216a8e3ea700@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/464824323e57dc4b397e8b05854d779908b55304

- Fix inline marking introduced in commit 464824323e. Forgot to add inline
  marking in changes_filename() declaration. In the passing, add inline marking
  for a similar function subxact_filename().  Reported-By: Nathan Bossart
  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/E98FBE8F-B878-480D-A728-A60C6EED3047@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/ac15b499f7f92c26661835c327bfb0228a9b5e73

Michaël Paquier pushed:

- Improve handling of dropped relations for REINDEX DATABASE/SCHEMA/SYSTEM. When
  multiple relations are reindexed, a scan of pg_class is done first to build
  the list of relations to work on.  However the REINDEX logic has never checked
  if a relation listed still exists when beginning the work on it, causing for
  example sudden cache lookup failures.  This commit adds safeguards against
  dropped relations for REINDEX, similarly to VACUUM or CLUSTER where we try to
  open the relation, ignoring it if it is missing.  A new option is added to the
  REINDEX routines to control if a missed relation is OK to ignore or not.  An
  isolation test, based on REINDEX SCHEMA, is added for the concurrent and
  non-concurrent cases.  Author: Michael Paquier Reviewed-by: Anastasia
  Lubennikova Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/20200813043805.GE11663@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/1d65416661bbb0b165865a521ce038ffb61b12ad

- Fix thinko with definition of REINDEXOPT_MISSING_OK. This had no direct
  consequences, but let's be consistent and it would be confusing when adding
  new flags.  Oversight in 1d65416.  Reported-by: Justin Pryzby Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/20200902024148.GB20149@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/01767533e37fa255722cc0088ed67a0309875963

- Add access method names to \d[i|m|t]+ in psql. Listing a full set of relations
  with those psql meta-commands, without a matching pattern, has never showed
  the access method associated with each relation.  This commit adds the access
  method of tables, indexes and matviews, masking it for relation kinds where it
  does not apply.  Note that when HIDE_TABLEAM is enabled, the information does
  not show up.  This is available when connecting to a backend version of at
  least 12, where table AMs have been introduced.  Author: Georgios Kokolatos
  Reviewed-by: Vignesh C, Michael Paquier, Justin Pryzby Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/svaS1VTOEscES9CLKVTeKItjJP1EEJuBhTsA0ESOdlnbXeQSgycYwVlliL5zt8Jwcfo4ATYDXtEqsExxjkSkkhCSTCL8fnRgaCAJdr0unUg=@protonmail.com
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/07f386ede026ae8c3f2adeba0c22139df19bf2ff

- Remove variable "concurrent" from ReindexStmt. This node already handles
  multiple options using a bitmask, so having a separate boolean flag is not
  necessary.  This simplifies the code a bit with less arguments to give to the
  reindex routines, by replacing the boolean with an equivalent bitmask value.
  Reviewed-by: Julien Rouhaud Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/20200902110326.GA14963@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/844c05abc3f1c1703bf17cf44ab66351ed9711d2

- Use multi-inserts for pg_depend. This is a follow-up of the work done in
  e3931d01.  This case is a bit different than pg_attribute and pg_shdepend: the
  maximum number of items to insert is known in advance, but there is no need to
  handle pinned dependencies.  Hence, the base allocation for slots is done
  based on the number of items and the maximum allowed with a cap at 64kB.
  Slots are initialized once used to minimize the overhead of the operation.
  The insertions can be done for dependencies of the same type.  More could be
  done by grouping the insertion of multiple dependency types in a single batch.
  This is left as future work.  Some of the multi-insert logic is also
  simplified for pg_shdepend, as per the feedback discussed for this specific
  patch.  This also moves to indexing.h the variable capping the maximum amount
  of data that can be used at once for a multi-insert, instead of having
  separate definitions for pg_attribute, pg_depend and pg_shdepend.  Author:
  Daniel Gustafsson, Michael Paquier Reviewed-by: Andres Freund, Álvaro Herrera
  Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/20200807061619.GA23955@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/63110c6264a5363863209c8fbdd0498c03535507

- Switch to multi-inserts when registering dependencies for many code paths.
  This commit improves the dependency registrations by taking advantage of the
  preliminary work done in 63110c62, to group together the insertion of
  dependencies of the same type to pg_depend.  With the current layer of
  routines available, and as only dependencies of the same type can be grouped,
  there are code paths still doing more than one multi-insert when it is
  necessary to register dependencies of multiple types (constraint and index
  creation are two cases doing that).  While on it, this refactors some of the
  code to use ObjectAddressSet() when manipulating object addresses.  Author:
  Daniel Gustafsson, Michael Paquier Reviewed-by: Andres Freund, Álvaro Herrera
  Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/20200807061619.GA23955@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/8febfd1855450f50f17419def41c2ea9bcf994d5

Fujii Masao pushed:

- Avoid unnecessary acquisition of SyncRepLock in transaction commit time. In
  SyncRepWaitForLSN() routine called in transaction commit time, SyncRepLock is
  necessary to atomically both check the shared sync_standbys_defined flag and
  operate the sync replication wait-queue. On the other hand, when the flag is
  false, the lock is not necessary because the wait-queue is not touched. But
  due to the changes by commit 48c9f49265, previously the lock was taken
  whatever the flag was. This could cause unnecessary performance overhead in
  every transaction commit time. Therefore this commit avoids that unnecessary
  aquisition of SyncRepLock.  Author: Fujii Masao Reviewed-by: Asim Praveen,
  Masahiko Sawada, Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/20200406050332.nsscfqjzk2d57zyx@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/be9788e9989a0744ba60ab100153340fd123b786

Peter Eisentraut pushed:

- Remove unused parameter. unused since 39bd3fd1db6f3aa3764d4a1bebcd71c4e9c00281
  Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/511bb100-f829-ba21-2f10-9f952ec06ead%402ndquadrant.com
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/fd5e3b291415e6cf55408af1282585c945464c8f

- Fix XML id to match containing page. This was apparently a typo when this part
  of the documentation was first added.
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/4220e5721a27286aab726e87d3db5d1ee475fe23

- doc: Add missing cross-links in system catalog documentation. This makes the
  first mention of a system catalog or view in each paragraph in the system
  system catalog and view documentation pages hyperlinks, for easier navigation.
  Also linkify the first mention of pg_hba.conf in pg_hba_file_rules, as that's
  more specific and easier to spot than the link to the client authentication
  chapter.  Author: Dagfinn Ilmari Mannsåker <[hidden email]> Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/87mu5xqc11.fsf@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/cb6eb4a09e8adf3cc25e8eff9fdd43d8d9cd9c86

- doc: Make SQL command names in the catalog documentation links. In passing,
  fix the initdb references to be <application> rather than <command>, which is
  what we normally use.  Author: Dagfinn Ilmari Mannsåker <[hidden email]>
  Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/87mu5xqc11.fsf@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/5ccf32211832477a147b1428b190817baea08f2f

- Remove unused parameter. unused since 93ee38eade1b2b4964354b95b01b09e17d6f098d
  Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/511bb100-f829-ba21-2f10-9f952ec06ead%402ndquadrant.com
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/96cfcadd26e26e138ae60f4f3f94beddafba60bb

- doc: Use tags consistently in the tutorial chapter. Make more consistent use
  of <screen> and <programlisting>.  Author: Jürgen Purtz <[hidden email]>
  Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/158996922318.7035.10603922579567326239@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/6eee73e4e5b6d499f1a5529f209ce4af86ef5152

- doc: Fix whitespace issue in PDF. Move <indexterm> outside of <para> to avoid
  whitespace issue in PDF output.  Author: Jürgen Purtz <[hidden email]>
  Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/158996922318.7035.10603922579567326239@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/79fd620b20b7721c2b591ef495be79b6347286c1

- doc: Change table alias names to lower case in tutorial chapter. This is
  needlessly different from our usual style otherwise.  Author: Jürgen Purtz
  <[hidden email]> Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/158996922318.7035.10603922579567326239@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/49d7165117893405ae9b5b8d8e7877acff33c0e7

- Fix typo in comment.
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/556cbdfce4ffe01410b89dbf01b27315aa201bbf

- Extend SQL function tests lightly. The basic tests that defined SQL functions
  didn't actually run the functions to see if they worked.  Add that, and also
  fix a minor mistake in a function that was revealed by this.  (This is not a
  question of test coverage, since there are other places where SQL functions
  are run, but it is a bit of a silly test design.)  Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/1c11f1eb-f00c-43b7-799d-2d44132c02d7@...
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/11b80d900fe4297e8e4bc231f6a41b53d604ed9e

- Remove unused parameter. unused since 84d723b6cefcf25b8c800f8aa6cf3c9538a546b4
  Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/511bb100-f829-ba21-2f10-9f952ec06ead%402ndquadrant.com
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/76af9744db168cfe96f45769b8ec68eb222d8fcf

- doc: Don't hide the "Up" link when it is the same as "Home". The original
  stylesheets seemed to think this was a good idea, but our users find it
  confusing and unhelpful, so undo that logic.  Reported-by: Fabien COELHO
  <[hidden email]> Discussion:
  https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/flat/alpine.DEB.2.22.394.2006210914370.859381%40pseudo
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/cd153b54eb6542d0e0b4addf1f10a1b34a328e17

Andrew Dunstan pushed:

- Collect attribute data on extension owned tables being dumped. If this data is
  not collected, pg_dump segfaults if asked for column inserts.  Fix by Fabrízio
  de Royes Mello  Backpatch to release 12 where the bug was introduced.
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/3eb3d3e7822d5eecfcaba871a90263c6025c5216

Jeff Davis pushed:

- Fix bogus MaxAllocSize check in logtape.c. Reported-by: Peter Geoghegan
  Discussion:
  https://postgr.es/m/CAH2-Wz=NZPZc3-fkdmvu=w2itx0PiB-G6QpxHXZOjuvFAzPdZw@...
  Backpatch-through: 13
  https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/0852006a946aa9795b4913bccebb88d623942ca6

== Pending Patches ==

Kyotaro HORIGUCHI sent in two revisions of a patch to fix NaN handling of some
geometric operators and functions.

Tom Lane sent in two revisions of a patch to get rid of runtime handling of
AlternativeSubPlan.

Thomas Munro and Li Japin traded patches to reduce uses of setitimer and make it
possible to terminate idle sessions via a new GUC, idle_session_timeout.

Kyotaro HORIGUCHI sent in another revision of a patch to allow a directory name
for GUC ssl_crl_file and connection option sslcrl.  X509_STORE_load_locations
accepts a directory, which leads to on-demand loading method with which method
only relevant CRLs are loaded.

Asim Praveen sent in another revision of a patch to Add syntax to the isolation
tester that makes it possible to declare a step that is expected to block, and
add a speculative insert isolation test spec using a fault injector.

Victor Spirin sent in a patch to fix an issue that manifested as output to
STDOUT sometimes disappearing on Windows.

Justin Pryzby sent in another revision of a patch to fix up some docs for 13.

Stephen Frost sent in another revision of a patch to implement a new role:
pg_read_all_data.

Pavel Borisov sent in two more revisions of a patch to implement covering
indexes for the SP-GiST index AM.

Tsutomu Yamada sent in another revision of a patch to add a command to psql,
\dX[+], which lists extended statistics.

Atsushi Torikoshi sent in another revision of a patch to enable
pg_get_backend_memory_contexts() to collect arbitrary backend process's memory
contexts.  Previously, pg_get_backend_memory_contexts() could only get the
memory contexts of the process which kicked it. This patch enables to get memory
contexts of the arbitrary process which PID is specified by the argument.

Álvaro Herrera sent in a patch to use an LWLock rather than spinlock for
Logwrt{Result,Rqst}.

Matthieu Garrigues sent in another revision of a patch to implement
batch/pipelining support for libpq.

Amit Kapila, Dilip Kumar, and Neha Sharma traded patches to add support for
streaming to built-in logical replication.

Justin Pryzby sent in a patch to show the stats target of extended statistics in
psql.

Georgios Kokolatos and Tom Lane traded patches to use StringInfo for
replace_string.

Etsuro Fujita sent in another revision of a patch to use Append with naive
multiplexing of FDWs.

Magnus Hagander sent in a patch to change the documentation for file FDW to a
relative path, removing a reference to a home path that's hard to decipher in
the process.

Melanie Plageman sent in another revision of a patch to implement adaptive
hashjoin.

Amul Sul sent in another revision of a patch to implement ALTER SYSTEM SET READ
{ONLY,WRITE}.

Li Japin sent in a patch to clarify the documentation of where settings go.

Michael Banck sent in a patch to clarify "rewritten" in the pg_checksums docs.

Kirk Jamison sent in two more revisions of a patch to speed up dropping of
relation buffers during recovery.

Michael Banck sent in a patch to fix checksum verification in base backups for
zero page headers.

Dmitry Dolgov sent in a patch to reorder GROUP BY clauses to do sorting more
efficiently.

Jeff Davis sent in a patch to fix the handling of reloptions for table access
methods.

Mark Dilger sent in two more revisions of a patch to remove postfix operators
generally and the postfix factorial operator in particular.

Dave Page sent in two revisions of a patch to fix broken Kerberos support in
MSVC builds on Win64.

Daniel Gustafsson sent in another revision of a patch to support NSS as a libpq
TLS backend.

Daniel Gustafsson sent in another revision of a patch to enable checksums
online.

David Rowley sent in another revision of a patch to implement some resultcache
in nestloop hacks.

Tom Lane sent in a patch to label some parameter names in builtin functions.

Vigneshwaran C sent in a patch to fix an issue where PostgreSQL's
describe-config option prints reset_val for int & real
configuration parameters which is not useful as it is not updated.  Fix this by
printing boot_val.

Michaël Paquier sent in two more revisions of a patch to fix some warnings in
CIC for partitioned tables.

Michaël Paquier sent in two revisions of a patch to refactor ReindexStmt and its
"concurrent" boolean.

Justin Pryzby and Aleksey Kondratov traded patches to allow CLUSTER, VACUUM FULL
and REINDEX to change tablespace on the fly.

Masahiro Ikeda sent in another revision of a patch to implement a
pg_stat_walwriter view.

Thomas Munro, Ranier Vilela, and Juan José Santamaría Flecha traded patches to
do a micro-optimization for walkdir().

Michaël Paquier sent in a patch to make index_set_state_flags() transactional.

Michaël Paquier sent in another revision of a patch to remove currtid() and
currtid2().

Pavel Borisov sent in another revision of a patch to implement a custom signal
handler for extensions.

Tom Lane sent in a WIP patch to clean up background SIGQUIT handling.

Amit Langote and Álvaro Herrera traded patches to check the default partition's
constraint even after tuple routing.

Craig Ringer sent in a patch to add support for detecting coding errors where a
stack-allocated ErrorContextCallback is not popped from the error_context_stack
before the variable leaves scope.

Konstantin Knizhnik sent in another revision of a patch to implement ON CONFLICT
DO SELECT.

Andrey V. Lepikhov sent in another revision of a patch to make it possible to
pull statistics for a foreign table from remote server.

Konstantin Knizhnik sent in two more revisions of a patch to implement ON LOGIN
triggers.

Jeff Davis sent in a patch to fix hashagg costing.

Pavel Stěhule sent in another revision of a patch to implement filter files for
pg_dump.

Kasahara Tatsuhito sent in a patch to enable a flag in the table_recheck_autovac
function to use the existing stats next time if VACUUM (or ANALYZE) has already
been done by another worker on the check after the stats have been updated.  If
the tables continue to require VACUUM after the refresh, then a refresh will be
required instead of using the existing statistics.

Laurenz Albe sent in another revision of a patch to add session statistics to
pg_stat_database.

John Hsu sent in a patch to pg_dump that has it iterate through all publication
tables in pg_publication_rel at once in order to  avoid querying on a per-table
basis so that we don't need to check if every table has a publication

Aleksey Kondratov sent in a patch to add a postgres_fdw.use_twophase GUC to use
2PC for transactions involving several servers.

Peter Eisentraut sent in a patch to add libpq's openssl dependencies to the
pkg-config file.

Peter Eisentraut sent in a patch to support negative years in make_timestamp().

Ranier Vilela sent in another revision of a patch to remove some redundant
initializations.

Peter Eisentraut sent in a patch to use <unnamed> for name of unnamed portal's
memory context.

Andrey Borodin sent in another revision of a patch to add sort support for point
gist_point_sortsupport, and implement GiST index builds using same.

Tomáš Vondra sent in another revision of a patch to implement BRIN multi-range
indexes.

Michaël Paquier sent in another revision of a patch to fix the range checks of
pg_test_fsync.

Jeff Janes sent in a patch to fix a bad error message in moving aggregates.