autoanalyze creates bad plan, manual analyze fixes it?

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autoanalyze creates bad plan, manual analyze fixes it?

Robert Treat-3
Howdy folks,

Recently i've run into a problem where autoanalyze is causing a query
plan to flip over to using an index which is about 10x slower, and the
problem is fixed by running an alayze manually. some relevant info:

UPDATE sleeping_intents SET
raptor_after='2020-09-14T19:21:03.581106'::timestamp,
status='requires_capture',
updated_at='2020-09-14T16:21:03.581104+00:00'::timestamptz WHERE
sleeping_intents.id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid AND
sleeping_intents.status = 'finna' RETURNING *;

The plan generated after autoanalyze is:

Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.70..7.11 rows=1 width=272) (actual
time=57.945..57.945 rows=0 loops=1)
   Buffers: shared hit=43942
   ->  Index Scan using
sleeping_intents_status_created_at_raptor_after_idx on
sleeping_intents  (cost=0.70..7.11 rows=1 width=272) (actual
time=57.943..57.943 rows=0 loops=1)
         Index Cond: (status = 'init'::text)
         Filter: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
         Rows Removed by Filter: 1262
         Buffers: shared hit=43942
 Planning time: 0.145 ms
 Execution time: 57.981 ms

after i run analyze manually, the query plan is changed to this:

Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.57..8.59 rows=1 width=272) (actual
time=0.023..0.023 rows=0 loops=1)
   Buffers: shared hit=7
   ->  Index Scan using sleeping_intents_pkey on sleeping_intents
(cost=0.57..8.59 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=0.022..0.022 rows=0
loops=1)
         Index Cond: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
         Filter: (status = 'init'::text)
         Rows Removed by Filter: 1
         Buffers: shared hit=7
 Planning time: 0.092 ms
 Execution time: 0.066 ms

Note that in the second query, it switches back to using the primary
key index, which does seem like the logically better choice, even
though it shows a higher estimated cost than the "bad" case
(understanding the cost must change somewhere in the process, but
there no way to see it afaict).

In trying to determine why it switches, I dug up some likely useful info:
Index definitions:
 (20 GB) "sleeping_intents_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (id)
 (37 GB) "sleeping_intents_status_created_at_raptor_after_idx" btree
(status, created_at DESC, raptor_after DESC)

Basic info on the table:
> select relid::regclass, n_live_tup,n_mod_since_analyze,analyze_count,autoanalyze_count from pg_stat_user_tables where relname='sleeping_intents';
      relid      | n_live_tup | n_mod_since_analyze | analyze_count |
autoanalyze_count
-----------------+------------+---------------------+---------------+-------------------
 sleeping_intents |  491171179 |             1939347 |             4 |
               80

(that num mods is in the last ~5 hours, the table is fairly active,
although on a relatively small portion of the data)

Statistics after manual analyze:
       tablename    |    attname    | null_frac | avg_width |
n_distinct | correlation |                   most_common_freqs
-----------------+---------------+-----------+-----------+------------+-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
 sleeping_intents | id            |         0 |        16 |         -1
| -0.00133045 | [null]
 sleeping_intents | status        |         0 |         9 |          6
|    0.848468 | {0.918343,0.0543667,0.0267567,0.000513333,1e-05,1e-05}
 sleeping_intents | created_at    |         0 |         8 |         -1
|    0.993599 | [null]
 sleeping_intents | raptor_after | 0.0663433 |         8 |  -0.933657
|     0.99392 | [null]

In a previous go around with this table, I also increased the
statistics target for the id column to 1000, vs 100 which is the
database default.

Originally I was mostly interested in trying to understand why it
would choose something other than the non-pk index, which sort of
feels like a bug; what could be faster than seeking an individual
entry in a pk index? There are cases where it might make sense, but
this doesn't seem like one (even accounting for the infrequency of the
status we are looking for, which is 1e-05, the disparity in index size
should push it back to the pk imho, unless I am not thinking through
correlation enough?).

However, it also seems very odd that this problem occurs at all. In
the last couple of times this has happened, the manual analyze has
been run within ~30-45 minutes of the auto-analyze, and while the data
is changing, it isn't changing that rapidly that this should make a
significant difference, but I don't see any other reason that
autoanalyze would produce a different result than manual analyze.

All that said, any insight on the above two items would be great, but
the most immediate concern would be around suggestions for preventing
this from happening again?

Thanks in advance,

Robert Treat
https://xzilla.net


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Re: autoanalyze creates bad plan, manual analyze fixes it?

Justin Pryzby
On Mon, Sep 14, 2020 at 07:11:12PM -0400, Robert Treat wrote:
> Howdy folks,
>
> Recently i've run into a problem where autoanalyze is causing a query
> plan to flip over to using an index which is about 10x slower, and the
> problem is fixed by running an alayze manually. some relevant info:

I think it's because 1) the costs and scan rowcounts are similar ; and, 2) the
stats are probably near some threshold which causes the plan to change.  I'm
guessing if you run a manual ANALYZE 100 times, you'll sometimes get the bad
plan.  Maybe depending on the data visible at the time analyze is invoked.

> UPDATE sleeping_intents SET
> raptor_after='2020-09-14T19:21:03.581106'::timestamp,
> status='requires_capture',
> updated_at='2020-09-14T16:21:03.581104+00:00'::timestamptz WHERE
> sleeping_intents.id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid AND
> sleeping_intents.status = 'finna' RETURNING *;

Do you mean status='init' ??

> The plan generated after autoanalyze is:
>
> Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.70..7.11 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=57.945..57.945 rows=0 loops=1)
>    Buffers: shared hit=43942
>    ->  Index Scan using sleeping_intents_status_created_at_raptor_after_idx on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.70..7.11 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=57.943..57.943 rows=0 loops=1)
>          Index Cond: (status = 'init'::text)
>          Filter: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
>          Rows Removed by Filter: 1262
>          Buffers: shared hit=43942
>  Planning time: 0.145 ms
>  Execution time: 57.981 ms
>
> after i run analyze manually, the query plan is changed to this:
>
> Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.57..8.59 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=0.023..0.023 rows=0 loops=1)
>    Buffers: shared hit=7
>    ->  Index Scan using sleeping_intents_pkey on sleeping_intents (cost=0.57..8.59 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=0.022..0.022 rows=0 loops=1)
>          Index Cond: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
>          Filter: (status = 'init'::text)
>          Rows Removed by Filter: 1
>          Buffers: shared hit=7
>  Planning time: 0.092 ms
>  Execution time: 0.066 ms
>
> Note that in the second query, it switches back to using the primary
> key index, which does seem like the logically better choice, even
> though it shows a higher estimated cost than the "bad" case
> (understanding the cost must change somewhere in the process, but
> there no way to see it afaict).

If you SET enable_indexscan=off you can try to get an bitmap index scan, which
will reveal how much of the cost is attributed to the index component and how
much to the heap.  That might help to refine costs, which may help.

> Statistics after manual analyze:
>        tablename    |    attname    | null_frac | avg_width |
> n_distinct | correlation |                   most_common_freqs
> -----------------+---------------+-----------+-----------+------------+-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
>  sleeping_intents | id            |         0 |        16 |         -1
> | -0.00133045 | [null]
>  sleeping_intents | status        |         0 |         9 |          6
> |    0.848468 | {0.918343,0.0543667,0.0267567,0.000513333,1e-05,1e-05}
>  sleeping_intents | created_at    |         0 |         8 |         -1
> |    0.993599 | [null]
>  sleeping_intents | raptor_after | 0.0663433 |         8 |  -0.933657
> |     0.99392 | [null]
>
> In a previous go around with this table, I also increased the
> statistics target for the id column to 1000, vs 100 which is the
> database default.

What about status ?
I wonder if sometimes the sample doesn't include *any* rows for the 1e-5
statuses.  So the planner would estimate the rowcount based on ndistinct and
the other frequencies.  But if you rerun analyze, then it thinks it'll get one
row based on the sampled frequency of status.  

What postgres version, and what non-default settings ?
Maybe you can run explain(settings,...).

--
Justin


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Re: autoanalyze creates bad plan, manual analyze fixes it?

Pavel Stehule
In reply to this post by Robert Treat-3


út 15. 9. 2020 v 1:11 odesílatel Robert Treat <[hidden email]> napsal:
Howdy folks,

Recently i've run into a problem where autoanalyze is causing a query
plan to flip over to using an index which is about 10x slower, and the
problem is fixed by running an alayze manually. some relevant info:

UPDATE sleeping_intents SET
raptor_after='2020-09-14T19:21:03.581106'::timestamp,
status='requires_capture',
updated_at='2020-09-14T16:21:03.581104+00:00'::timestamptz WHERE
sleeping_intents.id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid AND
sleeping_intents.status = 'finna' RETURNING *;

The plan generated after autoanalyze is:

Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.70..7.11 rows=1 width=272) (actual
time=57.945..57.945 rows=0 loops=1)
   Buffers: shared hit=43942
   ->  Index Scan using
sleeping_intents_status_created_at_raptor_after_idx on
sleeping_intents  (cost=0.70..7.11 rows=1 width=272) (actual
time=57.943..57.943 rows=0 loops=1)
         Index Cond: (status = 'init'::text)
         Filter: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
         Rows Removed by Filter: 1262
         Buffers: shared hit=43942
 Planning time: 0.145 ms
 Execution time: 57.981 ms

This looks pretty strange - why for 1262 rows you need to read 43942 pages?

Can you reindex this index. Maybe it is bloated.

Regards

Pavel

 

after i run analyze manually, the query plan is changed to this:

Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.57..8.59 rows=1 width=272) (actual
time=0.023..0.023 rows=0 loops=1)
   Buffers: shared hit=7
   ->  Index Scan using sleeping_intents_pkey on sleeping_intents
(cost=0.57..8.59 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=0.022..0.022 rows=0
loops=1)
         Index Cond: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
         Filter: (status = 'init'::text)
         Rows Removed by Filter: 1
         Buffers: shared hit=7
 Planning time: 0.092 ms
 Execution time: 0.066 ms

Note that in the second query, it switches back to using the primary
key index, which does seem like the logically better choice, even
though it shows a higher estimated cost than the "bad" case
(understanding the cost must change somewhere in the process, but
there no way to see it afaict).

In trying to determine why it switches, I dug up some likely useful info:
Index definitions:
 (20 GB) "sleeping_intents_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (id)
 (37 GB) "sleeping_intents_status_created_at_raptor_after_idx" btree
(status, created_at DESC, raptor_after DESC)

Basic info on the table:
> select relid::regclass, n_live_tup,n_mod_since_analyze,analyze_count,autoanalyze_count from pg_stat_user_tables where relname='sleeping_intents';
      relid      | n_live_tup | n_mod_since_analyze | analyze_count |
autoanalyze_count
-----------------+------------+---------------------+---------------+-------------------
 sleeping_intents |  491171179 |             1939347 |             4 |
               80

(that num mods is in the last ~5 hours, the table is fairly active,
although on a relatively small portion of the data)

Statistics after manual analyze:
       tablename    |    attname    | null_frac | avg_width |
n_distinct | correlation |                   most_common_freqs
-----------------+---------------+-----------+-----------+------------+-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
 sleeping_intents | id            |         0 |        16 |         -1
| -0.00133045 | [null]
 sleeping_intents | status        |         0 |         9 |          6
|    0.848468 | {0.918343,0.0543667,0.0267567,0.000513333,1e-05,1e-05}
 sleeping_intents | created_at    |         0 |         8 |         -1
|    0.993599 | [null]
 sleeping_intents | raptor_after | 0.0663433 |         8 |  -0.933657
|     0.99392 | [null]

In a previous go around with this table, I also increased the
statistics target for the id column to 1000, vs 100 which is the
database default.

Originally I was mostly interested in trying to understand why it
would choose something other than the non-pk index, which sort of
feels like a bug; what could be faster than seeking an individual
entry in a pk index? There are cases where it might make sense, but
this doesn't seem like one (even accounting for the infrequency of the
status we are looking for, which is 1e-05, the disparity in index size
should push it back to the pk imho, unless I am not thinking through
correlation enough?).

However, it also seems very odd that this problem occurs at all. In
the last couple of times this has happened, the manual analyze has
been run within ~30-45 minutes of the auto-analyze, and while the data
is changing, it isn't changing that rapidly that this should make a
significant difference, but I don't see any other reason that
autoanalyze would produce a different result than manual analyze.

All that said, any insight on the above two items would be great, but
the most immediate concern would be around suggestions for preventing
this from happening again?

Thanks in advance,

Robert Treat
https://xzilla.net


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Re: autoanalyze creates bad plan, manual analyze fixes it?

Robert Treat-3
In reply to this post by Justin Pryzby
On Mon, Sep 14, 2020 at 7:41 PM Justin Pryzby <[hidden email]> wrote:

>
> On Mon, Sep 14, 2020 at 07:11:12PM -0400, Robert Treat wrote:
> > Howdy folks,
> >
> > Recently i've run into a problem where autoanalyze is causing a query
> > plan to flip over to using an index which is about 10x slower, and the
> > problem is fixed by running an alayze manually. some relevant info:
>
> I think it's because 1) the costs and scan rowcounts are similar ; and, 2) the
> stats are probably near some threshold which causes the plan to change.  I'm
> guessing if you run a manual ANALYZE 100 times, you'll sometimes get the bad
> plan.  Maybe depending on the data visible at the time analyze is invoked.
>

I've been thinking to try to capture statistics info in the bad case,
I wonder if I could reproduce the situation that way.

> > UPDATE sleeping_intents SET
> > raptor_after='2020-09-14T19:21:03.581106'::timestamp,
> > status='requires_capture',
> > updated_at='2020-09-14T16:21:03.581104+00:00'::timestamptz WHERE
> > sleeping_intents.id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid AND
> > sleeping_intents.status = 'finna' RETURNING *;
>
> Do you mean status='init' ??
Yes, sorry, was playing around with different status's and copy/paste error.

>
> > The plan generated after autoanalyze is:
> >
> > Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.70..7.11 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=57.945..57.945 rows=0 loops=1)
> >    Buffers: shared hit=43942
> >    ->  Index Scan using sleeping_intents_status_created_at_raptor_after_idx on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.70..7.11 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=57.943..57.943 rows=0 loops=1)
> >          Index Cond: (status = 'init'::text)
> >          Filter: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
> >          Rows Removed by Filter: 1262
> >          Buffers: shared hit=43942
> >  Planning time: 0.145 ms
> >  Execution time: 57.981 ms
> >
> > after i run analyze manually, the query plan is changed to this:
> >
> > Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=0.57..8.59 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=0.023..0.023 rows=0 loops=1)
> >    Buffers: shared hit=7
> >    ->  Index Scan using sleeping_intents_pkey on sleeping_intents (cost=0.57..8.59 rows=1 width=272) (actual time=0.022..0.022 rows=0 loops=1)
> >          Index Cond: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
> >          Filter: (status = 'init'::text)
> >          Rows Removed by Filter: 1
> >          Buffers: shared hit=7
> >  Planning time: 0.092 ms
> >  Execution time: 0.066 ms
> >
> > Note that in the second query, it switches back to using the primary
> > key index, which does seem like the logically better choice, even
> > though it shows a higher estimated cost than the "bad" case
> > (understanding the cost must change somewhere in the process, but
> > there no way to see it afaict).
>
> If you SET enable_indexscan=off you can try to get an bitmap index scan, which
> will reveal how much of the cost is attributed to the index component and how
> much to the heap.  That might help to refine costs, which may help.
>

I'm not quite sure what your getting at, but took a look and got this
surprising plan:

Update on sleeping_intents  (cost=4.58..8.60 rows=1 width=272) (actual
time=0.025..0.025 rows=0 loops=1)
   Buffers: shared hit=6
   ->  Bitmap Heap Scan on sleeping_intents  (cost=4.58..8.60 rows=1
width=272) (actual time=0.025..0.025 rows=0 loops=1)
         Recheck Cond: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
         Filter: (status = 'init'::text)
         Rows Removed by Filter: 1
         Heap Blocks: exact=2
         Buffers: shared hit=6
         ->  Bitmap Index Scan on sleeping_intents_pkey
(cost=0.00..4.58 rows=1 width=0) (actual time=0.017..0.017 rows=3
loops=1)
               Index Cond: (id = 'r2d2dcc0-8a44-4d19-c3p0-28522233b836'::uuid)
               Buffers: shared hit=4
 Planning time: 1.170 ms
 Execution time: 0.063 ms

The one thing about this is that these are 0 update runs, because as
noted the data is always changing. I do think it's instructive to see
the plans, but in this case it feels a bit unfair.

> > Statistics after manual analyze:
> >        tablename    |    attname    | null_frac | avg_width |
> > n_distinct | correlation |                   most_common_freqs
> > -----------------+---------------+-----------+-----------+------------+-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
> >  sleeping_intents | id            |         0 |        16 |         -1
> > | -0.00133045 | [null]
> >  sleeping_intents | status        |         0 |         9 |          6
> > |    0.848468 | {0.918343,0.0543667,0.0267567,0.000513333,1e-05,1e-05}
> >  sleeping_intents | created_at    |         0 |         8 |         -1
> > |    0.993599 | [null]
> >  sleeping_intents | raptor_after | 0.0663433 |         8 |  -0.933657
> > |     0.99392 | [null]
> >
> > In a previous go around with this table, I also increased the
> > statistics target for the id column to 1000, vs 100 which is the
> > database default.
>
> What about status ?
> I wonder if sometimes the sample doesn't include *any* rows for the 1e-5
> statuses.  So the planner would estimate the rowcount based on ndistinct and
> the other frequencies.  But if you rerun analyze, then it thinks it'll get one
> row based on the sampled frequency of status.
>

This is on my list to try (there aren't many other options it seems);
I guess if the theory is that we are *that* close to the selectivity
edge that any random analyze might push it one way or the other,
giving it more data could help make that less volatile. (otoh, this
assumes the problem is that the times it is bad are because it doesn't
see something it should, and not that it does, in which case giving it
more info will push it more towards the bad.

> What postgres version, and what non-default settings ?
> Maybe you can run explain(settings,...).
>

Sorry, can't, this is 10.11, but I don't think there are any relevant
changes outside of what I've mentioned.


Robert Treat
https://xzilla.net