pgsql: Avoid generating extra subre tree nodes for capturing parenthese

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pgsql: Avoid generating extra subre tree nodes for capturing parenthese

Tom Lane-2
Avoid generating extra subre tree nodes for capturing parentheses.

Previously, each pair of capturing parentheses gave rise to a separate
subre tree node, whose only function was to identify that we ought to
capture the match details for this particular sub-expression.  In
most cases we don't really need that, since we can perfectly well
put a "capture this" annotation on the child node that does the real
matching work.  As with the two preceding commits, the main value
of this is to avoid generating and optimizing an NFA for a tree node
that's not really pulling its weight.

The chosen data representation only allows one capture annotation
per subre node.  In the legal-per-spec, but seemingly not very useful,
case where there are multiple capturing parens around the exact same
bit of the regex (i.e. "((xyz))"), wrap the child node in N-1 capture
nodes that act the same as before.  We could work harder at that but
I'll refrain, pending some evidence that such cases are worth troubling
over.

In passing, improve the comments in regex.h to say what all the
different re_info bits mean.  Some of them were pretty obvious
but others not so much, so reverse-engineer some documentation.

This is part of a patch series that in total reduces the regex engine's
runtime by about a factor of four on a large corpus of real-world regexes.

Patch by me, reviewed by Joel Jacobson

Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/1340281.1613018383@...

Branch
------
master

Details
-------
https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/ea1268f6301cc7adce571cc9c5ebe8d9342a2ef4

Modified Files
--------------
src/backend/regex/README     | 15 ++++++++++--
src/backend/regex/regcomp.c  | 54 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
src/backend/regex/rege_dfa.c |  6 ++---
src/backend/regex/regexec.c  | 22 ++++++++++--------
src/include/regex/regex.h    | 32 ++++++++++++++------------
src/include/regex/regguts.h  | 13 ++++++-----
6 files changed, 91 insertions(+), 51 deletions(-)