pgsql: Convert regex engine's subre tree from binary to N-ary style.

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pgsql: Convert regex engine's subre tree from binary to N-ary style.

Tom Lane-2
Convert regex engine's subre tree from binary to N-ary style.

Instead of having left and right child links in subre structs,
have a single child link plus a sibling link.  Multiple children
of a tree node are now reached by chasing the sibling chain.

The beneficiary of this is alternation tree nodes.  A regular
expression with N (>1) branches is now represented by one alternation
node with N children, rather than a tree that includes N alternation
nodes as well as N children.  While the old representation didn't
really cost anything extra at execution time, it was pretty horrid
for compilation purposes, because each of the alternation nodes had
its own NFA, which we were too stupid not to separately optimize.
(To make matters worse, all of those NFAs described the entire
alternation pattern, not just the portion of it that one might
expect from the tree structure.)

We continue to require concatenation nodes to have exactly two
children.  This data structure is now prepared to support more,
but the executor's logic would need some careful redesign, and
it's not clear that a lot of benefit could be had.

This is part of a patch series that in total reduces the regex engine's
runtime by about a factor of four on a large corpus of real-world regexes.

Patch by me, reviewed by Joel Jacobson

Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/1340281.1613018383@...

Branch
------
master

Details
-------
https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/581043089472816061a7fd381f40572191dfa48f

Modified Files
--------------
src/backend/regex/README    |   4 +-
src/backend/regex/regcomp.c | 222 +++++++++++++++++++++++---------------------
src/backend/regex/regexec.c | 104 +++++++++++----------
src/include/regex/regguts.h |  20 ++--
4 files changed, 185 insertions(+), 165 deletions(-)