pgsql: Detect internal GiST page splits correctly during index build.

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pgsql: Detect internal GiST page splits correctly during index build.

Heikki Linnakangas-5
Detect internal GiST page splits correctly during index build.

As we descend the GiST tree during insertion, we modify any downlinks on
the way down to include the new tuple we're about to insert (if they don't
cover it already). Modifying an existing downlink might cause an internal
page to split, if the new downlink tuple is larger than the old one. If
that happens, we need to back up to the parent and re-choose a page to
insert to. We used to detect that situation, thanks to the NSN-LSN
interlock normally used to detect concurrent page splits, but that got
broken by commit 9155580fd5. With that commit, we now use a dummy constant
LSN value for every page during index build, so the LSN-NSN interlock no
longer works. I thought that was OK because there can't be any other
backends modifying the index during index build, but missed that the
insertion itself can modify the page we're inserting to. The consequence
was that we would sometimes insert the new tuple to an incorrect page, one
whose downlink doesn't cover the new tuple.

To fix, add a flag to the stack that keeps track of the state while
descending tree, to indicate that a page was split, and that we need to
retry the descend from the parent.

Thomas Munro first reported that the contrib/intarray regression test was
failing occasionally on the buildfarm after commit 9155580fd5. The failure
was intermittent, because the gistchoose() function is not deterministic,
and would only occasionally create the right circumstances for this bug to
cause the failure.

Patch by Anastasia Lubennikova, with some changes by me to make it work
correctly also when the internal page split also causes the "grandparent"
to be split.

Discussion: https://www.postgresql.org/message-id/CA%2BhUKGJRzLo7tZExWfSbwM3XuK7aAK7FhdBV0FLkbUG%2BW0v0zg%40mail.gmail.com

Branch
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master

Details
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https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/22251686f07f70527aecda22ab5402986884f6f5

Modified Files
--------------
src/backend/access/gist/gist.c    | 33 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
src/include/access/gist_private.h |  7 +++++++
2 files changed, 40 insertions(+)