pgsql: Fix ALTER COLUMN TYPE failure with a partial exclusion constrain

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pgsql: Fix ALTER COLUMN TYPE failure with a partial exclusion constrain

Tom Lane-2
Fix ALTER COLUMN TYPE failure with a partial exclusion constraint.

ATExecAlterColumnType failed to consider the possibility that an index
that needs to be rebuilt might be a child of a constraint that needs to be
rebuilt.  We missed this so far because usually a constraint index doesn't
have a direct dependency on its table, just on the constraint object.
But if there's a WHERE clause, then dependency analysis of the WHERE
clause results in direct dependencies on the column(s) mentioned in WHERE.
This led to trying to drop and rebuild both the constraint and its
underlying index.

In v11/HEAD, we successfully drop both the index and the constraint,
and then try to rebuild both, and of course the second rebuild hits a
duplicate-index-name problem.  Before v11, it fails with obscure messages
about a missing relation OID, due to trying to drop the index twice.

This is essentially the same kind of problem noted in commit
20bef2c31: the possible dependency linkages are broader than what
ATExecAlterColumnType was designed for.  It was probably OK when
written, but it's certainly been broken since the introduction of
partial exclusion constraints.  Fix by adding an explicit check
for whether any of the indexes-to-be-rebuilt belong to any of the
constraints-to-be-rebuilt, and ignoring any that do.

In passing, fix a latent bug introduced by commit 8b08f7d48: in
get_constraint_index() we must "continue" not "break" when rejecting
a relation of a wrong relkind.  This is harmless today because we don't
expect that code path to be taken anyway; but if there ever were any
relations to be ignored, the existing coding would have an extremely
undesirable dependency on the order of pg_depend entries.

Also adjust a couple of obsolete comments.

Per bug #15835 from Yaroslav Schekin.  Back-patch to all supported
branches.

Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/15835-32d9b7a76c06a7a9@...

Branch
------
master

Details
-------
https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/e76de886157b7f974d4d247908b242607cfbf043

Modified Files
--------------
src/backend/catalog/pg_depend.c           | 16 +++++----
src/backend/commands/tablecmds.c          | 58 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
src/test/regress/expected/alter_table.out | 40 +++++++++++++++++++++
src/test/regress/sql/alter_table.sql      | 17 +++++++++
4 files changed, 118 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)