pgsql: Rework refactoring of hex and encoding routines

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pgsql: Rework refactoring of hex and encoding routines

Michael Paquier-2
Rework refactoring of hex and encoding routines

This commit addresses some issues with c3826f83 that moved the hex
decoding routine to src/common/:
- The decoding function lacked overflow checks, so when used for
security-related features it was an open door to out-of-bound writes if
not carefully used that could remain undetected.  Like the base64
routines already in src/common/ used by SCRAM, this routine is reworked
to check for overflows by having the size of the destination buffer
passed as argument, with overflows checked before doing any writes.
- The encoding routine was missing.  This is moved to src/common/ and
it gains the same overflow checks as the decoding part.

On failure, the hex routines of src/common/ issue an error as per the
discussion done to make them usable by frontend tools, but not by shared
libraries.  Note that this is why ECPG is left out of this commit, and
it still includes a duplicated logic doing hex encoding and decoding.

While on it, this commit uses better variable names for the source and
destination buffers in the existing escape and base64 routines in
encode.c and it makes them more robust to overflow detection.  The
previous core code issued a FATAL after doing out-of-bound writes if
going through the SQL functions, which would be enough to detect
problems when working on changes that impacted this area of the
code.  Instead, an error is issued before doing an out-of-bound write.
The hex routines were being directly called for bytea conversions and
backup manifests without such sanity checks.  The current calls happen
to not have any problems, but careless uses of such APIs could easily
lead to CVE-class bugs.

Author: Bruce Momjian, Michael Paquier
Reviewed-by: Sehrope Sarkuni
Discussion: https://postgr.es/m/20201231003557.GB22199@...

Branch
------
master

Details
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https://git.postgresql.org/pg/commitdiff/aef8948f38d9f3aa58bf8c2d4c6f62a7a456a9d1

Modified Files
--------------
src/backend/replication/backup_manifest.c |  28 +++--
src/backend/utils/adt/encode.c            |  96 ++++++++-------
src/backend/utils/adt/varlena.c           |  16 ++-
src/common/Makefile                       |   2 +-
src/common/hex.c                          | 192 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
src/common/hex_decode.c                   | 106 -----------------
src/include/common/hex.h                  |  25 ++++
src/include/common/hex_decode.h           |  16 ---
src/include/utils/builtins.h              |   3 -
src/tools/msvc/Mkvcbuild.pm               |   2 +-
10 files changed, 304 insertions(+), 182 deletions(-)